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Polarization-maintaining Fiber ,description And Developing Direction

Polarization-maintaining fiber: polarization-maintaining fiber-optic transmission line polarized light, widely used in aerospace, aviation, navigation, industrial manufacturing technology and communications, and other areas of the national economy. In an interferometric fiber-optic sensor based on optical coherent detection, the use of polarization-maintaining fiber can ensure that the linear polarization direction does not change, and the coherent signal-to-noise ratio is improved to realize high-precision measurement of physical quantities. As a special type of fiber, polarization maintaining fiber is mainly used in fiber optic gyros, fiber optic hydrophones and other optical fiber communication systems such as DWDM and EDFA. Because fiber optic gyros and fiber optic hydrophones can be used in military inertial navigation and sonar, which are high-tech products, and polarization-maintaining fiber is its core component, polarization-maintaining fibers have been listed by the western developed countries as an embargo for me. Now some domestic optical fiber production companies have been able to produce.

In polarization-maintaining fiber, the polarization maintaining performance will be degraded due to the structural defects generated inside the fiber. That is, when the linearly polarized light is transmitted along a characteristic axis of the fiber, part of the optical signal will be coupled into the other perpendicular to the fiber. The characteristic axis eventually causes a decrease in the polarization extinction ratio of the outgoing polarized light signal. This defect affects the birefringence effect in the optical fiber. In a polarization maintaining fiber, the stronger the birefringence effect is, the shorter the beat length is, and the better the polarization state of transmitted light is maintained. .

Even if the ordinary optical fiber is manufactured to be symmetrical again, in practice, the mechanical stress will become asymmetric and birefringence will occur. Therefore, the polarization state of light will change irregularly when it is transmitted in an ordinary optical fiber. The main influencing factors are wavelength, bending, temperature and so on.

Polarization-maintaining fiber can solve the problem of polarization state change, but it does not eliminate the birefringence phenomenon in the fiber. Instead, it creates a more intense birefringence effect through the geometrical design of the fiber to eliminate stress on the polarization of incident light. Impact.

Therefore, polarization-maintaining fibers are generally used in applications that are sensitive to polarization states, such as interferometers or lasers, or in the connection between a light source and an external modulator.

In the next few years, polarization-maintaining fiber will have a larger market demand. With the rapid development of new technologies in the world and continuous development of new products, polarization-maintaining fibers will develop in the following directions:

(1) Using the new technology of photonic crystal fiber to manufacture a new type of high performance PM fiber;

(2) Develop temperature-adaptive polarization-maintaining optical fibers to meet the requirements of aerospace and other fields;

(3) Develop various rare-earth-maintaining polarization-maintaining fibers to meet the needs of applications such as optical amplifiers;

(4) Develop fluoride-maintaining polarization-maintaining fibers to promote the development of fiber optic interference technology in the field of infrared astronomy;

(5) Low-attenuation polarization-maintaining fiber: With the continuous improvement of single-mode fiber technology, loss, material dispersion, and waveguide dispersion are no longer the main factors affecting fiber communication. The polarization mode dispersion (PMD) of single-mode fiber has gradually become a limitation. The most serious bottleneck of optical fiber communication quality is particularly prominent in high-speed optical fiber communication systems with 10 Gbit/s and above. In order to solve the problem of deterioration of the transmission system caused by PMD, a solution for compensating PMD is generally adopted. However, PMD is very sensitive to slight disturbances such as temperature and other environmental conditions, and the wavelength of the light source, and may randomly change over time. All have brought difficulties to the PMD compensation of optical fiber communication systems. If the low-attenuation PM fiber can be successfully developed, it will provide a new solution to the PMD problem in high-speed transmission systems.

(6) Polarization devices are manufactured using Kerr effect and Faraday rotation effect.

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